Maya (1997) and the UPIC Etudes (1996) were developed, composed and performed on the UPIC system at Les Ateliers UPIC in Alfortville, France.  UPIC is "Unité polyagogique informatique du CEMAMu". CEMAMu, in turn, stands for “Centre de mathématique et automatique musicales”, which translates to “Center for mathematical and automated music”. UPIC had been conceived of by Iannis Xenakis and developed by a team of hardware and software engineers from 1972. It allows (and demands) creating musical compositions by drawing lines on a canvas: waveforms, envelopes, pitch (i.e. frequency) curves, and more. Each one of UPIC’s 64 hardware oscillators can be made to modulate the frequency of any other oscillator.